你认为你食物中毒了吗?这是怎么说的

专家们分享了让你生病的习惯,以及如何尽快感觉好起来。
关于食物中毒有很多神话,比如认为你的最后一餐是让你生病的。
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关于食物中毒有很多神话,比如认为你的最后一餐是让你生病的。

与食物中毒作斗争已经够糟糕的了,但相信对它的误解会让你的病情变得更糟。

根据美国疾病控制和预防中心据估计,每年有4800万人患病,128000人住院,3000人死于食源性疾病。

如果食物没有被彻底清洗或煮熟,生活在食物中或食物上的某些细菌可能会导致疾病,哈佛大学医学助理教授兼传染病顾问Maryam Mahmood解释道梅奥诊所.

她说:“如果使用同一把刀或切割面,这些细菌也可以从一种食物转移到另一种食物。”她补充说,身体不适的人如果在接触食物之前不洗手,也可以将这些细菌传播到他们准备的食物中。

要知道你是否染上了与食物有关的虫子,你需要了解什么是——什么不是导致食物中毒。下面是一些需要尽快忘记的误区,这样你可以更快地感觉更好。

谬论:你最近的一餐就是你吃的那一餐。

许多人在生病后默认为“我最后吃了什么?”但这顿饭不一定是罪魁祸首。

“食源性疾病是在肠道产生毒素时发生的,这可能需要几天甚至几周的时间来积累足够的毒素以体验症状,”康斯坦丁·乔治(Constantine George)解释道典型医学,拉斯维加斯的一家内科和儿科私人诊所。

谬论:素食者不会食物中毒。

纽约布鲁克林布鲁克代尔医院医学中心内科住院医师副项目主任尼基特·桑帕尔说:“一项对3500多例食物相关疾病的研究表明,农产品是造成个人食物中毒最多的原因。”。“这意味着当你蜷缩在马桶上咒骂你吃的热狗或海鲜时,随之而来的生菜或西红柿可能是真正的罪魁祸首。”

雪莉·费斯特说:“吃蔬菜之前一定要冲洗干净,即使是那些果皮无法食用的蔬菜。”,美国农业部合作伙伴关系执行董事食品安全教育运动.

谬论:你可以通过食物的颜色来判断食物是否是干的。

不要总是依赖你的眼睛。

“判断食物是否安全食用的唯一方法是使用食物温度计,”费斯特说。她建议使用温度计温度图获取安全内部温度的完整列表。

神话:冷藏和冷冻食品不会让你生病。

你认为你的冰箱能解决你的问题吗?再想想。冷藏和冷冻只是延缓了病原体在食物上的繁殖;他们并没有完全阻止它。

他说:“冷冻会更慢,这就是为什么我们可以把食物放在冰箱里的时间比放在冰箱里的时间长,也就是为什么放在冰箱里太久会导致食物中毒。”克里斯汀·科斯基宁,华盛顿州注册营养师/营养学家。

根据该公司高级项目经理兼微生物学家丽莎·雅卡斯(Lisa Yakas)的说法,你应该在三到四天内吃冰箱里的剩菜,因为细菌在冰箱温度下仍然会生长美国国家卫生基金会,一家美国产品测试和认证组织。她建议将剩菜重新加热,确保它们的内部温度至少达到165华氏度,然后再食用。

她说:“如果使用微波炉,要定期搅拌食物,以促进加热。”。

谬论:在柜台上解冻肉是好的。

如果你一直在这样做,是时候立即停止了。

雅卡斯说:“为了确保食品安全,热的食品必须保持在140度以上的温度,冷的食品必须保持在40度以下。”他补充说,任何在这一温度范围内的食品都是食品储存的“危险区”。

“什么时候T对于冷冻食品,食品的内部温度永远不应该进入“危险区”,否则导致食源性疾病的细菌会迅速繁殖,”她说。

雅卡斯解释说,当食物在室温下解冻时,外表面可以很容易地加热到华氏40度以上,而中心仍然是冷冻的。她建议把食物放在冰箱里解冻或放在一盆冷水中,每30分钟更换一次,直到食物完全解冻。你也可以用微波炉解冻;然而,雅卡斯指出,“任何在微波炉中解冻的未煮熟的冷冻食品必须立即煮熟。”

谬论:烹调前先把肉冲洗干净。

清洗食物时要小心。乔治说:“用水冲洗肉类、家禽和海鲜实际上会增加食物中毒的几率,因为它们会把果汁和其他可能含有的细菌溅到水槽和柜台上。”。

谬论:在厨房柜台上过夜的比萨饼是第二天的公平游戏。

很抱歉让你的泡泡破灭了,但是“任何在室温下放置超过两小时的易腐食品都应该被丢弃,”雅卡斯说。

她建议在准备后两小时内(或在华氏90度以上的日子里,在一小时内)冷藏或冷冻剩菜,以减少细菌生长的机会。

谬论:剩饭是可以安全食用的,直到它们难闻为止。

乔治说:“引起食物中毒的细菌种类不会影响食物的外观、气味或味道,这是许多人寻找的标志。”。

在你的剩饭上注明日期,这样你就知道什么时候该把食物扔掉了(根据费斯特的说法,还是在三到四天之内)。如果有疑问,就把它扔掉。

安奇通过盖蒂图片

如何避免或缩短食源性疾病

食物中毒的症状可能因你感染的病菌而异,但常见的症状包括腹痛、胃痉挛、腹泻、发烧、恶心和呕吐。

他说:“肌肉疼痛、抽筋、虚弱甚至大便出血的情况不太常见。”帕梅拉美利奴酒店,迈阿密TopLine医学博士的医必威下注生。

马哈茂德说,大多数食物中毒事件在没有特殊治疗的情况下自行好转。

然而,马哈茂德补充说,如果你发烧超过华氏101.5度,腹泻持续三天以上,大便中有血,或出现小便减少、口干或站立时感到头晕等脱水症状,你应该去看医疗服务提供者。

“一旦暴露,最好的治疗是保持水分,”他说伊维特·麦奎因一位全球旅行医生补充说,在轻微的情况下,你可以用水、电解质替代饮料、椰子水甚至2%的牛奶来补充水分。“我建议每次腹泻时喝8盎司的液体,”她说。

最后,要意识到,一点预防就能起到很大的作用。健康、安全的饮食习惯是避免食物相关疾病的关键。

为了防止食物中毒,把肉和海鲜煮到熟透是很重要的。你也应该在准备食物之前和之后洗手,在使用浴室、换尿布或处理宠物后洗手,”Mahmood说。

Mahmood补充道,其他有益的措施包括避免未经高温消毒的牛奶或食品,在食用蔬菜和水果前彻底清洗,适当冷藏食品,以及在接触生食品后彻底清洁手和食品准备表面。还建议对生食品使用单独的砧板和盘子同时,家禽和海鲜也要避免污染其他食物。

雅卡斯说,某些人感染食源性疾病的风险较高,包括“非常年轻、非常年老、孕妇和免疫系统受损的人”。因此,这些人口统计数据应该采取额外的预防措施。

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